Charming Mosque Legacy of the Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia


Starting from Perlak in 840 AD, Islamic kingdoms began to spread throughout the archipelago. Leaving many relics that until now we can see firsthand. The various relics or historical evidence include tombstones and tombs of kings, dirhams, museums, forts, statues, and mosques.

Besides being able to be seen directly, some of the relics are even still functioning and well maintained. Until it can be visited and used by the public. One type of heritage that is still functioning today is a mosque.

Here are some charming mosques from the Islamic empire in Indonesia:

1. Sultan Mosque of Ternate

This mosque is a relic of the Sultanate of Ternate which is located in North Maluku. Founded in 1257 by Sultan Marhum, this sultanate is one of the oldest in Indonesia. Quoted from Indonesia Kaya, the Mosque of the Sultanate of Ternate or also known as Sigi Lamo began to be built since the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin, the second Sultan of Ternate. However, there are also those who say that its construction only started in the 17th century, during the reign of Sultan Saidi Barakati.

Even though it is very old, this mosque is still used by the community today. The rules and traditions that have existed for a long time are still being carried out very well. For example, there are regulations that require congregants to wear a skullcap when entering the interior of the mosque and a ban on the use of sarongs, which requires worshipers to wear long pants when worshiping.

In terms of architecture, this mosque is very unique. The mosque is pyramid-shaped with 6 steps. This mosque also does not have a dome like mosques in general. Judging from the plan of the building and the roof, this mosque is similar to the old mosques on the island of Java. Although simple, this mosque keeps its own beauty and uniqueness.

2. Katangka Old Mosque

It is a relic of the Kingdom of Gowa in South Sulawesi. This kingdom was founded in 1300 and began to adopt Islam officially in the early 1600s. Launching from Tirto, the Old Mosque of Katangka was founded around 1603 AD. But there is also another opinion which states that this mosque was founded in the 18th century AD.

Judging from the architecture, this mosque has three building elements, namely the base, body, and roof. This mosque is rectangular in shape with an overlapping roof which is supported by four large main pillars and is equipped by four small iron pillars. At the top of the mosque there was originally a mustaka or dome made of ceramic. However, now it has been destroyed and replaced with cement.

The Katangka Mosque is still standing firmly in a very well-maintained condition. This mosque is also still used for daily worship activities by local residents.

3. Baiturrahman Aceh Grand Mosque

Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh Photo: (Syanti/detikcom)

Who does not know this mosque. This mosque is a relic of the Malacca Sultanate which was founded in 1405. This mosque is located on Jl. Mohd Jam, Kampung Baru, Baiturrahman District, Banda Aceh.

The mosque, which stood tall in the midst of the 2004 tsunami, is still standing charmingly and has become one of the icons of Aceh Province. Reporting from the Banda Aceh Tourism page, this mosque has an architecture that developed from the Mughal Empire in India. The Baiturrahman Grand Mosque building has a decoration in the form of a giant umbrella similar to the one in the Prophet’s Mosque.

Until now, the Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is still used by the people of Aceh. This mosque can accommodate up to 24,000 worshipers. This mosque is also equipped with a very large parking area that can accommodate hundreds of cars and motorbikes.

4. Great Mosque of Demak

It is a relic of the Demak Kingdom, the first Islamic kingdom on the island of Java. This kingdom was founded in 1478. Quoted from the Demak Regency Tourism Office website, this mosque is estimated to have been founded by Raden Patah, around the 15th century AD.

Architecturally, this mosque has a main building and a porch. The main building has four main pillars called saka guru and is a closed room. While the foyer building is an open building. The roof of the mosque is in the shape of a pyramid supported by eight pillars called Saka Majapahit. This roof has three levels which symbolize faith, Islam, and Ihsan.

The Great Mosque of Demak is still used by the public. In addition to worship, this mosque is also often visited by tourists who see firsthand the beauty of the mosque or visit the tombs of kings and the Museum of the Great Mosque of Demak which is located inside the mosque complex.

Those are the four mosques of the Islamic empire in Indonesia. Although these mosques are spread over four different islands, the resemblance to the distinctive features of the Islamic kingdom can be seen. In addition to worship, this mosque can also be visited by travelers who want to enjoy the beauty of the mosque’s architecture and absorb the history of its journey.

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